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MP3播放器过度使用可致青少年失聪

曾听闻国内某著名听力医生说过这样一句话:在我们业内,有这么一句话,MP3使听力专家永远不会失业。咋一听似危言耸听。但近期的一项研究论文证实了这一点。8月18日出版的《美国医学会杂志》刊登一项最新研究发现,在1988—2006年,美国青少年中听力丧失病例增加了30%左右,因此五分之一的孩子如今出现了部分听力丧失。而青少年听力丧失的致病原因既不是巨大噪音也不是药物过量,而最可能与孩子们的不良生活方式和习惯有关,其中罪魁祸首之一就是整天不离身的MP3。

该研究由波士顿市布莱根妇女医院的约瑟夫·夏格洛德斯基博士主持完成。该研究收集了参与第三次全国卫生及营养检定调查(1988-1994年)的2928名青少年的相关数据。并与参加2005—2006年同样调查的1771名青少年进行的对比分析。

结果发现,在前后两组青少年中,至少有一只耳朵发生一定程度的听力丧失的孩子分别占 14.9%和19.5%,相当于美国不同程度失聪的孩子增加了650万,增加幅度为31%。大部分属于不为孩子们注意的轻度听力丧失。另外后一组中,大部分听力丧失与高频有关,占16.4%,只有9%为低频听力丧失病例。

未参与此项研究的一位顶尖科学家,美国密歇根大学卫生系统听觉学与电生理学研究中心主任保罗·R·奇伦尼教授表示,这一发现无疑给大众当头泼了一盆冷水。青少年听力丧失的致病原因既不是巨大噪音也不是药物过量,而最可能与孩子们的不良生活方式和习惯有关,其中罪魁祸首之一就是整天不离身的MP3。奇伦尼教授建议,听MP3应该将音量调到安全范围,不宜过大。避免在噪音过大的场合听MP3。另外,使用MP3的时间也不宜过长。

原文链接>>

Change in Prevalence of Hearing Loss in US Adolescents

Josef Shargorodsky, MD, MPH; Sharon G. Curhan, MD, ScM; Gary C. Curhan, MD, ScD; Roland Eavey, MD, SM

JAMA. 2010;304(7):772-778. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.1124

Context Hearing loss is common and, in young persons, can compromise social development, communication skills, and educational achievement.

Objective To examine the current prevalence of hearing loss in US adolescents and determine whether it has changed over time.

Design Cross-sectional analyses of US representative demographic and audiometric data from the 1988 through 1994 and 2005 through 2006 time periods.

Setting The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994, and NHANES 2005-2006.

Participants NHANES III examined 2928 participants and NHANES 2005-2006 examined 1771 participants, aged 12 to 19 years.

Main Outcome Measures We calculated the prevalence of hearing loss in participants aged 12 to 19 years after accounting for the complex survey design. Audiometrically determined hearing loss was categorized as either unilateral or bilateral for low frequency (0.5, 1, and 2 kHz) or high frequency (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz), and as slight loss (>15 to <25 dB) or mild or greater loss (≥25 dB) according to hearing sensitivity in the worse ear. The prevalence of hearing loss from NHANES 2005-2006 was compared with the prevalence from NHANES III (1988-1994). We also examined the cross-sectional relations between several potential risk factors and hearing loss. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results The prevalence of any hearing loss increased significantly from 14.9% (95% CI, 13.0%-16.9%) in 1988-1994 to 19.5% (95% CI, 15.2%-23.8%) in 2005-2006 (P = .02). In 2005-2006, hearing loss was more commonly unilateral (prevalence, 14.0%; 95% CI, 10.4%-17.6%, vs 11.1%; 95% CI, 9.5%-12.8% in 1988-1994; P = .005) and involved the high frequencies (prevalence, 16.4%; 95% CI, 13.2%-19.7%, vs 12.8%; 95% CI, 11.1%-14.5% in 1988-1994; P = .02). Individuals from families below the federal poverty threshold (prevalence, 23.6%; 95% CI, 18.5%-28.7%) had significantly higher odds of hearing loss (multivariate adjusted OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.10-2.32) than those above the threshold (prevalence, 18.4%; 95% CI, 13.6%-23.2%).

Conclusion The prevalence of hearing loss among a sample of US adolescents aged 12 to 19 years was greater in 2005-2006 compared with 1988-1994.

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